Recebido: 22-02-2023 | Aprovado: 29-03-2023

Audit of social networks in the olive oil sector

María Illescas Manzano, Universidad de Almería (


Como citar este artigo:
Illescas Manzano, M. (2023). Auditoria das redes sociais no sector do azeite . [RMd] RevistaMultidisciplinar, 5(2), 23-40.


Abstract: From the analysis of data collected in a survey conducted by 13 February to 13 March 2021 in the social media of both Castillo de Canena and its competitors has already been carried out in the field of social media, in order to be able to compare them and detect the weaknesses of the main company. All the companies studied have a profile created on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube, however, on Twitter not all of them have a profile, especially Maestros Hojiblanca, which is positioned at a very low level compared to Castillo de Canena. The order of use of these RRSS by organizations is respectively Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube, with Facebook being the RRSS most used both at an organizational level and by users of all ages, followed by Instagram. Castillo de Canena must correct its weaknesses detected in the field of social media in order to position itself at least at the same level as its competition. For this, a series of strategies and tactics or actions are proposed that will help to achieve the objectives that are proposed below. In addition, the actions proposed will be monitored or controlled to verify that they are being carried out correctly and that they are being effective and efficient. Interest to know how the olive sector is working on social networks and to know first-hand what the engagement is in each of the social networks they use.

Keywords: Engagement, social media, Oil sector, audit social media.


Social networks (RRSS) have transformed the environment of communication between people, marking a before and after, due to their great reach among society and their great impact on it (Hütt, 2012).
In recent years, different types of RRSS have emerged, being used by both natural and legal persons, in addition to giving them both a use of their own interest, as well as a professional use within the organization (Hütt, 2012)
The RRSS have been experiencing changes and developing, adopting a fundamental role in our lives. Through them it is possible to have a more regular and agile way of dialogue between strategic groups, attending to the demands of customers and helping in turn to achieve a better positioning of companies, in addition to helping the positioning of certain products and / or services.
Over time they have been established as a basic and useful means to establish interaction between society and companies, establishing strong relationships between both, very attractive from the Marketing perspective. Regarding the creation of relationships or links between companies and their stakeholders, the active search for the means or channels necessary to make this possible will be taken into account, therefore, we interpret in this sense that RRSS are considered one of the many feasible channels to establish such links (Uribe et al., 2021).
The probability that companies, apart from using conventional media as they had been doing years ago, is increasingly using digital or online marketing, since it has more facilities to be able to interact with different audiences and entails less expense. For this reason, companies must be more rigorous when organizing their actions in the communication plan based on RRSS (Hütt, 2012).
The elaboration of this work is due to the investigative interest about the role that the Social Networks have adopted in society, and the influence that these can have on individuals. This work is focused on the field of Marketing and RRSS that surrounds organizations, mainly in the olive sector, being a sector in full swing and continuous growth. The ability of each organization to reach its target audience and build strong links that go beyond transactional marketing in a non-intrusive way, is one of the primary competitive advantages that an organization can choose against its competition. Due to the large number of companies that are emerging through the RRSS, it is necessary to determine what type of strategies they carry out to improve their positioning compared to other competing companies. On the one hand, it is important to know the functioning of the RRSS due to the great impact they have on society, but, on the other hand, it is also relevant to know in depth how the RRSS work within a company from the marketing point of view.
Throughout this work, an audit of RRSS is carried out, to delimit the strengths and weaknesses of the main company, taking into account the threats that it may have from having so many close and direct competitors in this sector. With this, it will be possible to identify the weaknesses of the organization and put means to correct them and place the company in digital media in a notorious position.
The general objective of this work is to recognize the weaknesses and strengths of the Castillo de Canena company in its different RRSS with respect to its competition, in order to maintain or improve those aspects necessary to improve its online positioning before its competitors.
To achieve the general objective, specific objectives are established:
• Carry out an online audit between the main company and its different competitors for one month, specifically from February 13 to March 13, 2021.
• Study in depth the engagement during a month of each RRSS (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube) of both the company and its competition.
• Propose improvement proposals to the study company to improve the competitive position in RRSS with respect to the competitors analyzed.
The methodology followed to carry out this work is based on observation. This audit is carried out for a month (specifically from February 13 to March 13), in which, through observation, we note the number of publications, number of likes, views, followers ..., etc., which are they get during that month. This process is carried out both for Castillo de Canena, which is the main company, and for its direct competitors; Castillo de Tabernas, La española, Maestros Hojiblanca, Carbonell, Coosur and La Masia.


An audit is a strategic tool that allows diagnosing what strategies and actions are being carried out both in the company and outside of it. In addition, it will provide us with feedback through which we can make decisions to change or restructure part of those actions and strategies that do not provide the company with what it really needs (Núñez, 2021b).
An audit of RRSS is based on a study of the situation of companies in the field of Social Media, thus being able to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the management of their RRSS and then be able to compare them with those of their competitors in this same area. and subsequently to be able to implement corrective measures or those that are more beneficial for the company itself. It is the most effective and efficient method of not letting any error or element escape that could create a deficiency in the management of the RRSS of the organization itself.
According to Vilma Núñez “The audit is the best tool to measure, analyze and define marketing strategies. When you evaluate in detail the quality and effectiveness of what you offer, you ensure that everything is managed correctly. "(Núñez, 2021a) and with it, it will be possible to have a better and clearer perspective of the methods or activities carried out, giving rise to the knowledge respond and better manage the weaknesses that the company faces in the field of Social Media and meet the needs of the market.
It is vitally important to monitor and control RRSS in the business environment in order to carry out adequate and innovative actions to reach more audiences and create long-term relationships or links with customers, thus achieving their loyalty (Núñez, 2021b).
IAB Spain Research is a large worldwide organization based on knowledge of communication, advertising, online and offline marketing. It is present in 47 countries and in 2001 it began its activity in Spain. The objective of this organization is to offer all possible knowledge about the digital marketing industry to all the public that is interested in this field (IAB Spain, 2021).
According to IAB Spain Research, there is a new and different model of studying the activities and actions carried out by companies in their RRSS. It is the PRGS model, implemented by IAB Spain and being a pattern that translates the quantitative information collected in a RRSS investigation into qualitative information (IAB Spain, 2021).
This model has been used in various investigations on the activity of social networks in various fields, such as in the Journal of Tourism and Local Development by Sánchez et al., (2017), in the Geintec Journal by Jiménez et al., (2018) and in the Journal of Administration and Economics Sciences by Gutiérrez and others., (2018)
After conceptualizing the PRGS model, we proceed to explain in more detail what it consists of.
This model is made up of 4 variables that in turn include a series of factors, with the aim of studying the activity of companies and / or brands in the Social Media field and determining the presence of each company in each determined RRSS, the activity that they have in them and the effectiveness of their actions with clients (Sánchez et al., 2017):
• Presence. This variable is determined by the set of followers and by the number of total posts or publications that the company makes in its RRSS.
• Answer. It is determined by the number of likes and / or reactions of users towards the posts or publications that the company makes in its RRSS.
• Generation. This variable is defined by the amount of comments that users make on the posts or publications made by the company itself in its RRSS.
• Suggestion. It is defined by the number of recommended and / or shared publications that users execute in the company's RRSS.
It is worth highlighting another variable not mentioned above that also has its special relevance in this study, classified as “Engagement”.
After the multiple definitions of various authors about the term engagement, we can specify that according to the author Van Doorn, referenced in (Moreno and Fuentes, 2019), “Understand engagement as a manifestation of the behavior of a client with a brand or company, more beyond the purchase, as a result of motivational causes such as word of mouth, recommendations, help other customers, blogs, etc. "
Engagement is also given by the number of likes and / or reactions, number of comments on the posts and posts shared / recommended by users, among others. For this reason, the engagement variable encompasses the last three variables mentioned above; "Suggestion", "Generation" and "Response" (Sánchez et al., 2017).
After contextualizing the term engagement we can talk about its calculation. Depending on each RRSS to which we address, the calculation may vary, since the variables used will not be the same, although the total interactions / total publications rule generally always follows. Next, the calculation of engagement for each RRSS is shown in detail (See table 1):

Table 1. Engagement calculation


Formula engagement


((Likes+ Shares+ Comments) / Volumen of Fans) *100


((Likes+ Comments) / Followers) * 100


((Retweets+ Likes) / nº de tweets) / Followers) *100


((Likes+ Shares+ Comments) / Views) *100

An extra contribution to the PRGS model is the type or format of the publication, through which the format in which the publications have been exposed in the RRSS is analyzed (Sánchez et al., 2017).
In short, the variables and / or indicators used to carry out the analysis of the activity in RRSS of the companies mentioned throughout this work have been the following (See table 2):

Table 2. Variables to evaluate the activity of companies in their RRSS


After the observation procedure carried out over a month (specifically from February 13 to March 13, 2021), of the RRSS (specifically on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube) of the different olive companies, a series of information based on some variables depending on the RRSS to which we are addressing (See Annex 9.5), which will subsequently help us to identify the strengths and weaknesses that the main company Castillo de Canena has with respect to its closest competitors. This action procedure will help us to implement strategies and tactics that contain both corrective measures and improvements for the management of the RRSS of Castillo de Canena.
Next, a more specific and brief analysis is carried out taking into account the variables mentioned in the previous section:
• Presence. To analyze the presence of the chosen olive companies, it will be analyzed which of them have profiles or accounts officially created in each RRSS discussed. In addition, in addition, the set of followers and total publications that each organization has will be analyzed.

Graph 1. Number of followers in the RRSS of each company

Mainly, it is verified that the seven companies have a profile or account open on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. However, when studying Twitter, it is observed that all companies have a presence in it except for Maestros Hojiblanca, so this detail already makes it different from the others, it can even position it in a lower position than the rest, in terms of scope of Social Media is concerned.
The presence section carried out in this study is divided into 2 parts; Total followers and total posts.
On the one hand, as indicated in graph 1, it is verified that the use of Facebook's RRSS by the different companies is above all others. On the other hand, and unlike Facebook, we find YouTube and Twitter, ranking in the queue and being the least used RRSS by these organizations. By placing Facebook and then Instagram at the head of the Social Media field, it is pointed out that organizations bet and invest their time more in them than in others.
Regarding the number of followers (See graph 1), it is worth highlighting the disproportionate increase in followers in La Masia with the figure of 649,824 and in La española with 364,071 on the Facebook platform, followed by Coosur and Carbonell, and ranking as the company with less followers on Facebook Castillo de Canena. This may be due to the fact that La Masia is situated in the minds of consumers as the best-known olive-growing company with a high degree of notoriety and memory, in addition to the fact that Facebook is the RRSS most used by users. However, the opposite happens with Castillo de Canena, obtaining a lower ranking position in the minds of consumers.
In the followers section, YouTube and Twitter also stand out, being the accounts least used by users, and thus the ones that receive the least number of followers in the seven companies mentioned. Finally, it is possible to highlight a high presence of the organizations on Facebook and Instagram and a residual presence on both YouTube and Twitter.

Graph 2. Number of publications in the RRSS of each company

Regarding the number of publications (See graph 2), it stands out as Facebook, in addition to being the social media that has the most followers on average, it is also the one with the highest number of total publications, followed by Instagram. You can see how La Masia continues to be at the forefront of the rest of the companies, publishing on its profile on both Facebook, Instagram and YouTube on a daily basis and with various publications. The use of Twitter to publish by companies has increased, this may be due to the fact that this RRSS has re-emerged among followers and is having a relevant impact on them.
Although the followers in this RRSS are not numerous in each of these companies, the publications are to a certain extent. Companies have understood the importance that users are giving to Twitter and are increasing their publications in order to reach them more directly and interact with them, turning Twitter into another communication channel as interactive as Facebook can be. and Instagram.
• Engagement. After checking the number of followers and total publications that each company has in the different RRSS, that is, after analyzing their presence in them, the impact that the actions or activities carried out by organizations have on their RRSS in front of users is examined.

Graph 3. Percentage of engagement in the RRSS of each company

Observing graph 3, it is verified that the percentage of engagement on Instagram is higher than in any other RRSS, even on Facebook, which has previously been observed to be the winning platform. This means that on Instagram users are more linked to the actions that companies carry out through their RRSS and that they provide greater interaction with them. All this agrees since Instagram is positioned in the market as a very complete platform in expansion that does not stop growing, although if you look at it, Facebook (to a lesser percentage) is not far behind since it is positioned as the most popular RRSS of all the ages.
Continuing with the analysis of engagement, it is concluded that in this case the organization with the highest percentage of engagement is Carbonell, which is why it has a high degree of interaction with its users. However, Maestros Hojiblanca continues to be below all companies in terms of the degree of interaction with their users.
•Publications. Depending on the type of RRSS in which each company wishes to publish its publications, one type of publication or another will predominate.
Facebook. On this platform you can publish videos and photos with or without text, links and / or articles of interest to the public, funny phrases or memes to attract attention. In addition, you have the option of being able to comment and react to each publication in order to have a greater degree of interaction with the user.
Instagram. As on Facebook, on Instagram there is the possibility to publish photos and videos with or without text, to be able to comment and react on each publication… etc. However, the only difference is that Facebook's RRSS has users of a greater age range, so many companies link Instagram posts with Facebook posts to reach a larger target audience.
Youtube. Unlike the previous RRSS, YouTube leaves aside the photos, emphasizing videos. The videos can have a maximum duration of up to 12 hours, although in few cases it happens. As in Facebook and Instagram, the videos can carry an explanatory or striking text that is crucial to capture the attention of users on this network, the ability to be commented or reacted. It is a more monotonous RRSS than the others
After conducting the analysis, it is observed that all or almost all of the olive companies studied link their Instagram posts with Facebook, with the aim, as mentioned above, of having a higher percentage of views and reaching more target audiences. On Facebook and Instagram, organizations often choose the video format, in which multiple videos of recipes made together with their oil appear, as is the example of La Masia. On the other hand, they also include images conducting raffles on special days for their oils or simply photos of prepared dishes.
On YouTube, all the companies analyzed use this network for corporate purposes in which their oil mills, work tools, land where they plant their olive trees for the subsequent production of their oils, presentations of the staff and / or owners of the organization, etc. are detailed. . It should also be noted that they make videos in which it is indicated how the olive is harvested or other procedures carried out in the olive groves.
Finally, on Twitter they publish content similar to that of Instagram and Facebook, referring to special days such as Mother's Day, raffles ... etc. However, there is a relevant aspect in this RRSS, this being the one that most of the publications of these organizations on Twitter are based on sharing content published by other accounts that mention them. This aspect can help the reputation of the company, since this way the users themselves can see for themselves the prestige of the organization by being mentioned by other institutions for any action carried out, such as attending congresses or olive oil fairs, in addition to being mentioned for the quality of its products.


Table 3. Comparison of the different companies in the sector in the RRSS


With the completion of this research work, it has been concluded that we live in a world in which the existence of RRSS in the business environment is considered a very important and necessary factor. Their impact on society has positive or negative repercussions, depending on how they are managed by each organization. Its good management has positive consequences in the creation of long-term relationships with users, in addition to increasing interaction with them, promoting more fluid and interactive communication. Most companies use RRSS to attract more users who feel they belong to the brand, and to make these users feel committed to it.
The olive-growing sector is not a sector that is identified by having a great communication channel through the RRSS, but it is true that more and more are increasing their activity in them, turning the Social Media field into a perfect medium to communicate with its users. After carrying out the study of the Castillo de Canena company and its competence in RRSS, the following main conclusions have been obtained.
On the one hand, all the companies studied have a profile created on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube, however, on Twitter not all of them have a profile, especially Maestros Hojiblanca, which is positioned at a very low level compared to Castillo de Canena The order of use of these RRSS by organizations is respectively Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube, with Facebook being the RRSS most used both at an organizational level and by users of all ages, followed by Instagram. On the other hand, there is Twitter that is emerging among companies as a communication channel, because new users are currently being added and they can use these advantages to turn that channel into a medium as interactive as Facebook or Instagram.
Most of these organizations' posts on Twitter are based on sharing content posted by other accounts that mention them. This aspect can give the company a greater reputation for being mentioned by other institutions. In other conditions, it is observed that the analyzed companies use YouTube for more corporate purposes in which their oil mills, work tools, land where they plant their olive trees for the subsequent production of their oils, presentations of the staff and / or owners of the organization are detailed. …etc. However, it should be noted that study companies link their Instagram posts with Facebook, in order to reach more audiences. Despite linking the publications of both RRSS, there is a great difference in the degree of engagement or interaction with users, presenting a higher percentage of engagement on Instagram than on Facebook, so it could be said that, although Facebook is the RRSS more known and used, on Instagram a higher degree of engagement with the user is achieved. After conducting the study, it was observed that La Masia, apart from positioning itself in the minds of consumers as the best-known company with a high degree of notoriety and memory, also has the highest percentage of engagement on Facebook. Hence, the existence of its high number of followers and daily publications in that same RRSS can be verified. Regarding the number of followers on Facebook, La española also stands out. Unlike La Masia and La española, Castillo de Canena has a lower number of followers, due to the low knowledge of users about it.
Considering La Masia and La española as the two best-positioned competitors of Castillo de Canena in the Social Media field, the completion of this study has led to the setting of goals and strategies by Castillo de Canena in its RRSS to improve its presence and its competitive position.
Finally, it should be noted that outside the field of Social Media, the competing company of Castillo de Canena that is best positioned in the market is Coosur. 



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