O pandemónio da Gripe Espanhola

e as lições sobre o conhecimento científico de prevenção de pandemias

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23882/rmd.22088

Palavras-chave:

Gripe Espanhola, Lições, Conhecimento científico, Saúde Pública

Resumo

A Gripe Espanhola, também chamada Pneumónica, foi uma pandemia causada pelo subtipo H1N1 de influenza, que surgiu em 1918, no último ano da I Guerra Mundial. O vírus afetava os pulmões e as vias respiratórias, provocava hemorragia pulmonar e infeção bacteriana secundária. Não se sabe a origem, mas ficou conhecida como Gripe Espanhola, já que os jornais espanhóis reportaram amplamente os efeitos do vírus no país, pois Espanha assumiu uma posição neutra na guerra, não sendo praticada a censura na imprensa. A pandemia disseminou-se por várias partes do mundo e teve três ondas, sendo que a segunda, no outono de 1918, foi responsável por elevadas taxas de morbilidade e mortalidade. No geral resultou em cerca de 500 milhões de infetados por todo o mundo e, em mais de 50 milhões de mortes. Distinguiu-se pela elevada mortalidade em jovens adultos. Portugal foi um país muito afetado. A Gripe Espanhola chegou ao país através do Alentejo, durante os meses de junho e julho de 1918.
Pretendemos, com o presente artigo, refletir sobre como a partir da pandemia de 1918-1919 desenvolveu-se o conhecimento científico na área da saúde pública e como os avanços científicos subsequentes facilitaram o desenvolvimento de medidas preventivas, incluindo vacinas e antivirais. Muitas lições da pandemia de Gripe Espanhola foram aprendidas e contribuíram para a história da ciência na prevenção de outras potenciais pandemias e epidemias que decorreram ou foram prevenidas no século XX e início do século XXI incluindo a pandemia da Covid-19.

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2022-02-20

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Coelho, A. C., Oliveira, J., & Rodrigues, I. (2022). O pandemónio da Gripe Espanhola: e as lições sobre o conhecimento científico de prevenção de pandemias. RevistaMultidisciplinar, 4(2), 95–115. https://doi.org/10.23882/rmd.22088